Urine tests employ a microscope visual examination, as well as a dipstick test to identify possible infections in the urinary tract. Dipstick tests, specifically, check the chemical balance of urine to measure levels of:
- Acidity: Excessive acidity (ph) levels in the urine may indicate a kidney or urinary tract disorder.
- Protein: Large amounts of protein in the urine may indicate a kidney disorder, as the kidneys are responsible for filtering these substances out of the urine.
- Glucose: Elevated sugar levels in the urine are usually an indication of prediabetes or diabetes.
- Ketones: Ketones, like glucose, are sugar substances that may indicate diabetes or prediabetes.
- Nitrates: Nitrates in the urine are a common indicator of infection.
- White blood cells: White blood cells in the urine are a common indicator of infection.
- Bilirubin: Bilirubin is a waste product from the breakdown of red blood cells in the liver. The presence of this substance in urine may indicate a liver disorder.
- Blood: Blood in the urine commonly indicates kidney damage, kidney disease, kidney stones, urinary tract cancers, or bleeding disorders.
If a microscope exam is performed, your urine will be checked for the presence of:
- White blood cells: White blood cells in the urine are usually an indicator of infection.
- Red blood cells: Red blood cells in the urine are a common sign of a kidney disorder, bladder cancer, or an infection of the urinary tract.
- Pathogens: Bacteria, viruses, parasites, or yeast in the urine may indicate the presence of an infection in the urinary tract, kidneys, or liver.
- Crystals: Uric crystals are a common indicator of kidney stones,